Boston Marathon To Honor Man With Cerebral Palsy

Dick Hoyt has pushed a wheelchair carrying his son Rick, who has cerebral palsy, across the finish line of nearly 1,100 races. Now they’re set to be honored at the famed Boston Marathon.

Since the 1980s, the father-son team has tackled hundreds of triathlons and 5K races in addition to 70 marathons and 94 half marathons. Never mind that Rick Hoyt, 51, is unable to use his arms or legs and relies on assistive technology to speak.

Dick Hoyt, 72, says he was not a runner when they started competing, but was inspired to race for his son who indicated that running made him feel like his disability disappeared.

This year alone the Hoyts plan to participate in about two-dozen races, including the Boston Marathon which they have competed in many times before. This time will be different, however, with a life-size bronze statue of the father and son set to be revealed at the starting line, reports TODAY

Boston Marathon

For the rowing event, see Boston Rowing Marathon.
Boston Marathon
The Boston Marathon logo
Date Third Monday of April
Location Eastern Massachusetts, ending in Boston
Event type Road
Distance Marathon
Established 1897
Course records Men: 2:03:02 (2011)
Geoffrey Mutai
Women: 2:20:43 (2002)
Margaret Okayo
Official site

The Boston Marathon is an annual marathonhosted by several cities in Greater Boston in easternMassachusetts. It is always held on Patriots’ Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, inspired by the success of the first modern-day marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics,[1] the Boston Marathon is the world’s oldest annual marathon, and ranks as one of the world’s best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors.

Since 1897, the Boston Athletic Association (B.A.A.) has managed this event.[2] Amateur and professional runners from all over the world compete in the Boston Marathon each year, braving the hilly New England terrain and varying weather to take part in the race.

The event attracts 500,000 spectators each year, making it New England’s most widely viewed sporting event.[3] Though starting with 18 participants in 1897, the event now attracts an average of about 20,000 registered participants each year, with 26,839 people entering in 2013.[4] The Centennial Boston Marathon in 1996 established a record as the world’s largest marathon with 38,708 entrants, 36,748 starters, and 35,868 finishers.[3]



Boston Marathon Finish Line, 1910.

The Boston Marathon was first run in April 1897, inspired by the revival of the marathon for the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. It is the oldest continuously running marathon, and the second longest continuously running footrace, in North America, having debuted five months after the Buffalo Turkey Trot.[5]

On April 19, 1897, ten years after the establishment of the B.A.A., the association held the 24.5 mile (39.4 km] marathon to conclude its athletic competition, the B.A.A. Games.[2] The event was scheduled for the recently established holiday ofPatriots Day, with the race linking the Athenian and American struggles for liberty.[6] The race, which became known as the Boston Marathon, has been held every year since then, making it the world’s oldest annual marathon. In 1924, the starting line was moved from Metcalf’s Mill in Ashland toHopkinton Green and the course was lengthened to 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) to conform to the standard set by the 1908 Summer Olympics and codified by the IAAF in 1921.[7]

The Boston Marathon was originally a local event, but its fame and status have attracted runners from all over the world. For most of its history, the Boston Marathon was a free event, and the only prize awarded for winning the race was a wreath woven from olive branches.[8] However, corporate-sponsored cash prizes began to be awarded in the 1980s, when professional athletes began to refuse to run the race without cash awards. The first cash prize for winning the marathon was awarded in 1986.[9]

Walter A. Brown was the President of the Boston Athletic Association from 1941 to 1964.[10] In 1951, during the height of the Korean War, Brown denied Koreans entry into the Boston Marathon. He stated: “While American soldiers are fighting and dying in Korea, every Korean should be fighting to protect his country instead of training for marathons. As long as the war continues there, we positively will not accept Korean entries for our race on April 19.”[11]

Women were not allowed to enter the Boston Marathon officially until 1972. Roberta “Bobbi” Gibb is recognized as the first woman to run the entire Boston Marathon (in 1966). In 1967,Kathrine Switzer, who had registered as “K. V. Switzer”, was the first woman to run with a race number. She finished, despite a famous incident in which race official Jock Semple tried to rip off her numbers and eject her from the race.[12] In 1996 the B.A.A. retroactively recognized as champions the unofficial women’s leaders of 1966 through 1971. In 2011, about 43 percent of the entrants were female.

2011 Boston Marathon[edit]

On Monday, April 18, 2011 Geoffrey Mutai ofKenya won the Boston Marathon in a time of 2:03:02.[13] In recognizing Mutai’s mark as the “fastest Marathon ever run”, the International Association of Athletics Federations noted that the performance was not eligible for world record status given that the course does not satisfy rules regarding elevation drop and start/finish separation (the latter requirement being intended to prevent advantages gained from a strong tailwind, as was the case in 2011).[14] The Associated Press reported that Mutai has the support of other runners who describe the IAAF’s rules as “flawed”.[15] According to the Boston Herald, race director Dave McGillivray said he was sending paperwork to the IAAF to have Mutai’s mark ratified as a world record.[13] The AP also indicated that the attempt to have the mark certified as a world record “would force the governing bodies to reject an unprecedented performance on the world’s most prestigious marathon course”.[15]



Boston Marathon
Qualifying Standards

(effective for 2013 race)
Age Men Women
18–34 3hrs 5min 3 hrs 35min
35–39 3hrs 10min 3 hrs 40min
40–44 3hrs 15min 3 hrs 45min
45–49 3hrs 25min 3 hrs 55min
50–54 3hrs 30min 4 hrs 0min
55–59 3hrs 40min 4 hrs 10min
60–64 3hrs 55min 4 hrs 25min
65–69 4hrs 10min 4 hrs 40min
70–74 4hrs 25min 4 hrs 55min
75–79 4hrs 40min 5 hrs 10min
80+ 4hrs 55min 5 hrs 25min

The Boston Marathon is open to runners 18 or older from any nation, but they must meet certain qualifying standards.[16] To qualify, a runner must first complete a standard marathoncourse certified by a national governing body affiliated with the International Association of Athletics Federationswithin a certain period of time before the date of the desired Boston Marathon (usually within approximately 18 months prior).

In the 1980s and 1990s, membership inUSA Track & Fieldwas required of all runners, but this requirement has been eliminated.

Qualifying standards for the 2013 race were tightened on February 15, 2011, by five minutes in each age-gender group for marathons run after September 23, 2011.[17] Prospective runners in the age range of 18–34 must run a time of no more than 3:05:00 (3 hours and 5 minutes) if male, or 3:35:00 (3 hours and 35 minutes) if female; the qualifying time is adjusted upward as age increases. In addition, the 59-second grace period on qualifying times has been completely eliminated; for example, a 40- to 44-year-old male will no longer qualify with a time of 3:15:01. For many marathoners to qualify for Boston (to “BQ”) is a goal and achievement in itself.[18][19]

An exception to the qualification times is for runners who receive entries from partners. About one-fifth of the marathon’s spots are reserved each year for charities, sponsors, vendors, licensees, consultants, municipal officials, local running clubs, and marketers. In 2010, about 5,470 additional runners received entries through partners, including 2,515 charity runners.[20] The marathon currently allocates spots to two dozen charities who in turn are expected to raise more than $10 million a year.[21]

On October 18, 2010, the 20,000 spots reserved for qualifiers were filled in a record-setting eight hours and three minutes.[22] The speed of registration prompted the B.A.A. to change its qualifying standards for the 2013 marathon onward.[17] In addition to lowering qualifying times, the change includes a rolling application process, which gives faster runners priority. Organizers decided not to significantly adjust the number of non-qualifiers.

Race day[edit]

The race has traditionally been held on Patriots’ Day,[23] a state holiday in Massachusetts, and until 1969 that was every April 19, whichever day of the week that fell on. Starting in 1969, the holiday was observed on the third Monday in April[24] and so the marathon date was correspondingly fixed to that Monday, often referred to by local residents as “Marathon Monday.”[25]

Starting times[edit]

Through 2005, the race began at noon (wheelchairrace at 11:25 am, and elite women at 11:31 am), at the official starting point in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Beginning with the 2006 event, the race has used a staggered “wave start,” where (in 2006) top seeded runners (the elite men’s group) and a first batch of up to 10,000 runners started at noon, with a second group starting at 12:30. Beginning in 2007 the starting times for the race were moved up, allowing runners to take advantage of cooler temperatures and enabling the roads to be reopened earlier. The marathon later added a third wave to help further stagger the runners and reduce congestion.[26][27][28]

As of 2013, the starting times are:

  • 9:00 a.m.: Mobility Impaired Program
  • 9:17 a.m.: Push Rim Wheelchair Division
  • 9:22 a.m.: Handcycle Participants
  • 9:32 a.m.: Elite Women
  • 10:00 a.m.: Elite Men and Wave One
  • 10:20 a.m.: Wave Two
  • 10:40 a.m.: Wave Three[29]


Course map

The course runs through 26 miles 385 yards (42.195 km) of winding roads, following Route 135Route 16Route 30and city streets into the center of Boston, where the official finish line is located at Copley Square, alongside the Boston Public Library. The race runs through eight Massachusetts cities and towns:HopkintonAshlandFraminghamNatick,WellesleyNewtonBrookline, and Boston.[30]

Robert Kipkoech Cheruiyot in the 2006 Boston Marathon, where he set a new course record.

The Boston Marathon is considered to be one of the more difficult marathon courses because of the Newton hills, which culminate inHeartbreak Hillnear Boston College.[31] While the three hills on Commonwealth Avenue (Route 30) are better known, a preceding hill on Washington Street (Route 16), climbing from theCharles River crossing at 16 miles (26 km), is regarded by Dave McGillivray, the long-term race director, as the course’s most difficult challenge.[32][33] This hill, which follows a 150-foot (46 m) drop in a half-mile stretch, forces many lesser-trained runners to a walking pace.

Heartbreak Hill[edit]

Heartbreak Hill is an ascent over 0.4-mile (600 m) between the 20 and 21-mile (32 and 34 km) marks, near Boston College. It is the last of four “Newtonhills”, which begin at the 16-mile (26 km) mark and challenge contestants with late (if modest) climbs after the course’s general downhill trend to that point. Though Heartbreak Hill itself rises only 88 feet (27 m) vertically (from an elevation of 148 feet (45 m) to 236 feet (72 m)),[34] it comes in the portion of a marathon distance where muscle glycogen stores are most likely to be depleted—a phenomenon referred to by marathoners as “hitting the wall.”

It was on this hill that, in 1936, defending championJohn A. “Johnny” Kelley overtook Ellison “Tarzan” Brown, giving him a consolatory pat on the shoulder as he passed. This gesture renewed the competitive drive in Brown, who rallied, pulled ahead of Kelley, and went on to win—thereby, it was said, breaking Kelley’s heart.[35][36]


Participants in the 2010 Boston Marathon in Wellesley, just after the halfway mark

Because the course drops 459 feet (140 m) from start to finish[37] and the start is quite far west of the finish, allowing a helpful tailwind, the Boston Marathon does not satisfy two of the criteria necessary for the ratification of world[38] or American records.[39]

On April 18, 2011, Geoffrey Mutai of Kenya ran the fastest marathon ever in a time of 2 hours 3 minutes 2 seconds at the 2011 Boston Marathon.[40][41]Margaret Okayo, also from Kenya, set the women’s course record with a 2:20:43 performance in 2002.[42]

Other course records include:

  • Men’s Masters: John Campbell (New Zealand), 2:11:04 (set in 1990)
  • Women’s Masters: Mary Hannah (United States), 2:27:58 (set in 2012)
  • Men’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Joshua Cassidy (Canada), 1:18:25 (set in 2012)
  • Women’s Push Rim Wheelchair: Jean Driscoll (United States), 1:34:22 (set in 1994)[42]

On only four occasions have world record times for marathon running been set in Boston.[citation needed] In 1947, the men’s record time set was 2:25:39, by Suh Yun-Bok of South Korea. In 1975, a women’s world record of 2:42:24 was set by Liane Winter of West Germany, and in 1983, Joan Benoit Samuelson of the United States ran a women’s world record time of 2:22:43. In 2012 Joshua Cassidy of Canada set a men’s wheelchair marathon world-record time of 1:18:25.

The race’s organizers keep a standard time clock for all entries, though official timekeeping ceases after the six-hour mark.


With approximately 500,000 spectators, the Boston Marathon is New England‘s most widely viewed sporting event.[3] About 1,000 media members from more than 100 outlets received media credentials in 2011.[43]

For the entire distance of the race, thousands line the sides of the course to cheer the runners on, encourage them, and provide free water and snacks to any of the runners. The crowds are even more encouraging for the amateur runners and first time runners.

It is a tradition that at Mile 21 Boston College students drink to the accomplishments of the runners and enthusiastically cheer them on.[44]

Every year, the Boston Red Sox play a home game at Fenway Park, starting at 11:05 am. When the game ends, the crowd empties into Kenmore Squareto cheer as the runners enter the final mile. This tradition started in 1903.[45] In the 1940s, theAmerican League and National League teams in the city would alternate yearly as to which would play the morning game. (Boston had teams in both leagues from 1903 to 1952.) In 2007, the game between the Red Sox and the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim was delayed until 12:18 pm due to heavy rain. The marathon, which had previously been run in a wide variety of weather conditions, was not delayed.[46]

Scream Tunnel[edit]

At Wellesley College, it is traditional for the students to cheer on the runners in what is referred to as the Scream Tunnel.[47][48] For about a quarter of a mile (400 m), students line the course, scream, and offer kisses. The Scream Tunnel is so loud it can be heard from a mile away. The tunnel is roughly half a mile (0.8 km) prior to the halfway mark of the course.[49][50]

The B.A.A.[edit]

The Boston Athletic Association is a non-profit, organized sports association that organizes the Boston Marathon and other events.[51][52][53]


The Boston Marathon has a proud tradition of extending the challenge of the marathon to people with disabilities. In 1975, the Boston Marathon became the first major marathon to include a wheelchair division competition.[54] Bob Hall wrote race director Will Cloney to ask if he could compete in the race in his wheelchair. Cloney wrote back that he could not give Hall a race number, but would recognize Hall as an official finisher if he completed the race in under 3 hours and 30 minutes. Hall finished in 2 hours and 58 minutes, paving the way for the wheelchair division.[55]

In addition to the push rim wheelchair division, the Boston Marathon also hosts a blind/visually impaired division and a mobility impaired program. Similar to the running divisions, a set of realistic qualifying times has been developed for these divisions to motivate aspiring athletes and ensure competitive excellence. In 1986, the introduction of prize money at the Boston Marathon gave the push rim wheelchair division the richest prize purse in the sport. More than 1,000 people with disabilities and impairments have participated in the wheelchair division, while the other divisions have gained popularity each year.[56] In 2013, 40 blind runners participated.[57]


The Boston Marathon Memorial in Copley Square, not far from the finish line, was installed to mark the one-hundredth running of the race. A circle of granite blocks set in the ground surrounds a central medallion that traces the race course and other segments that show an elevation map of the course and the names of the winners.[58]

Notable events[edit]

Dick and Rick Hoyt[edit]

One of the most recognized duos each year at the Boston Marathon, expressly awaited by hordes of spectators, is Dick and Rick Hoyt.[59] Dick is the father of Rick, who has cerebral palsy. While doctors said he would never have a normal life and thought that institutionalizing Rick was the best option, Dick and his wife disagreed and raised him as an ordinary child. Eventually a computer device was developed that helped Rick communicate with his family, and they learned that one of his biggest passions was sports. “Team Hoyt” (Dick and Rick) started competing in charity runs, with Dick pushing Rick in a wheelchair. Dick and Rick have competed in 66 marathons and 229 triathlons (as of August 2008). Their top marathon finish was 2:40:47. The team completed their 30th Boston Marathon in 2012, when Dick was 72 and Rick was 50.[60]

Rosie Ruiz scandal[edit]

Scandal came to the Boston Marathon in 1980 when amateur runner Rosie Ruiz came from out of nowhere to win the women’s race. Marathon officials became suspicious when it was found Ruiz did not appear in race videotapes until near the end of the race. A subsequent investigation concluded that Ruiz had skipped most of the race and blended into the crowd about one mile (1.6 km) from the finish line, where she then ran to her apparent victory. Ruiz was officially disqualified, and the winner was proclaimed to be Canadian Jacqueline Gareau.[61][62]

2013 bombing[edit]

During the 2013 Boston Marathon, at 2:50 p.m. EDT, nearly three hours after the winners crossed the finish line, two explosions occurred about 200 yards (180 m) apart on Boylston Street, in approximately the last 225 yards (205 m) of the course. The race was halted, preventing many from finishing.[63][64] Three spectators were killed and more than 200 people were injured.[65][66]


In 1996, a 62-year-old Swedish man died of a heart attack during the 100th anniversary event.[67] In 2002, Cynthia Lucero, 28, died of hyponatremia.[68]

Popular culture[edit]

A 2004 Canadian-produced feature film, Saint Ralph, is the fictional story of a fourteen year-old Ontario, Canada parochial schoolboy who runs and almost wins the 1954 Boston Marathon in order to commit a miracle to wake his mother from a coma.[69]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ “The First Boston Marathon”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  2. a b “Boston Athletic Association: Established March 15, 1887”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  3. a b c “Boston Marathon History: Boston Marathon Facts”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  4. ^ “2013 Boston Marathon Statistics”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  5. ^ Graham, Tim (November 24, 2011).“Pollow takes third consecutive Turkey Trot amid the goofballs”. The Buffalo News. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
  6. ^ “The History of the Boston Marathon: A Perfect Way to Celebrate Patriot’s Day”. The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  7. ^ “Timeline of Events”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  8. ^ “Q&A: The Boston Marathon”. Wasabi Media Group. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
  9. ^ “De Castella and Kristiansen Win First Cash Prize”. NY Times Co. Retrieved April 4, 2011.
  10. ^ Pave, Marvin (April 17, 2008). “Legacy on the line”. The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  11. ^ “Sport: Banned in Boston”. Time. February 12, 1951. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  12. ^ “NPR: Marathon Women”. NPR. April 15, 2002. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  13. a b Connolly, John (April 20, 2011). “BAA on record: Geoffrey Mutai’s No. 1”Boston Herald. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
  14. ^ Monti, David (April 18, 2011). “Strong winds and ideal conditions propel Mutai to fastest Marathon ever – Boston Marathon report” International Association of Athletics Federations. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  15. a b Golen, Jimmy (April 19, 2011). “Boston wants Mutai’s 2:03:02 to be world record”.The Boston Globe. AP. Retrieved April 21, 2011.
  16. ^ “Participant Information: Qualifying”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  17. a b “New Qualifying Times in Effect for 2013 Boston Marathon.”. Boston Athletic Association. February 16, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  18. ^ Burfoot, Amby (April 6, 2009). “All in the Timing”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  19. ^ Mannes, George (March 29, 2011). “B.Q. or Die”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  20. ^ Hohler, Bob; Springer, Shira (February 17, 2011). “Marathon qualifying is revised”.The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  21. ^ “Boston Marathon Official Charity Program”. BAA. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  22. ^ Shira Springer (October 19, 2010).“Online, sprinters win race: Marathon fills its field in a record 8 hours”. NY Times Co. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  23. ^ “The Boston Marathon Is Held on Patriots’ Day, Which Has Become an Unofficial Anti-Government Day of Action”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  24. ^ “Patriot’s Day in United States”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  25. ^ Hansen, Amy (April 15, 2013). “Potter Twp. native recalls Marathon Monday”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  26. ^ “Boston Marathon Set to Begin Two Hours Earlier”. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  27. ^ “Time lapse video of 2008 marathon start”The New York Times. March 1, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  28. ^ “New Start Structure for the 2011 Boston Marathon.”. March 7, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  29. ^ “Race Day Schedule”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  30. ^ “Event Information: Spectator Information”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  31. ^ Bakken, Marius. “Boston Marathon: Pros and Cons”. Retrieved February 18, 2011.
  32. ^ Connelly, Michael (1998). 26 Miles to Boston. Parnassus Imprints. pp. 105–06.
  33. ^ “Boston Course Tips”. Rodale Inc. March 14, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  34. ^ Boston Marathon Official Program, April 2005, p.68
  35. ^ Michael Vega (October 7, 2004). “At Heartbreak Hill, a salute to a marathoner for the ages”. The New York Times Company. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  36. ^ “Recalling The Most Memorable Boston Moments”. Competitor Group, Inc. April 13, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  37. ^ Golen, Jimmy (April 19, 2011). “Boston wants Mutai’s 2:03:02 to be world record”.The Boston Globe. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  38. ^ Malone, Scott; Krasny, Ros (April 18, 2011). “Mutai runs fastest marathon ever at Boston”. Reuters. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  39. ^ “USATF Rule 265(5)”. USATF. p. 9. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  40. ^ Connolly, John (April 19, 2011). “Geoffrey Mutai in a hurry to set new marathon marks”Boston Herald. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  41. ^ May, Peter (April 18, 2011). “Kenya’s Mutai Wins Boston in 2:03:02”The New York Times. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
  42. a b “Boston Marathon course records”.Boston Globe marathon site. April 18, 2011. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  43. ^ “Driven to Repeat”. Boston Herald. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
  44. ^ “BC’s ‘Mile 21’ at Its Starting Line for Monday”. April 14, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  45. ^ “Move Over Marathon: Red Sox Share the Tradition of Patriots’ Day”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  46. ^ “Patriots’ Day Weather”. April 20, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  47. ^ Pave, Marvin (April 22, 2003).“Resounding Wellesley message: voices carry”Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
  48. ^ “Runner’s World Slideshow: 2008 Boston Marathon”. 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-30.
  49. ^ “Marathon Monday”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  50. ^ “Support, kisses at marathon’s Scream Tunnel”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  51. ^ “About Boston Athletic Association”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  52. ^ “B.A.A. History”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  53. ^ Hanc, John (2012). The B.A.A. at 125: The Official History of the Boston Athletic Association, 1887-2012. Sports Publishing. ISBN 978-1613211984.
  54. ^ “Facts at a Glance”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  55. ^ Savicki, Mike. “Wheelchair Racing in the Boston Marathon”. Disaboom. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  56. ^ “Paving the way for disabled athletes since 1975”. Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  57. ^ “Running blind: 40 sightless runners competing in Boston marathon”. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  58. ^ “100 Public Artworks”Boston Marathon Memorial. Boston Art Commission. p. 3. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  59. ^ Bousquet, Josh (April 15, 2012). “Dick and Rick Hoyt are Boston Marathon fixtures”.Telegram & Gazette. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  60. ^ “Dick And Rick Hoyt Complete 30th Boston Marathon”. April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  61. ^ Boston Athletic Association (2011).“Boston Marathon History: 1976–1980” Boston: Boston Athletic Association. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  62. ^ “Boston disqualifies Rosie Ruiz”Boca Raton News. April 30, 1980. p. 3C. Retrieved March 9, 2011.
  63. ^ “Explosions rock Boston Marathon, several injured”. CNN. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
  64. ^ Golen, Jimmy (15 April 2013). “Two explosions at Boston marathon finish line”.AP Newswire. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  65. ^ McConville, Christine (April 23, 2013).“Marathon injury toll jumps to 260”.Boston Herald. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  66. ^ “Injury toll from Marathon bombings rises”. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  67. ^ “Boston Marathon Appears to Have a Lower Heart-Attack Death Rate Than Other Marathons”. Runners World. April 5, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  68. ^ “Fluid Cited in Marathoner’s Death”. Associated Press. August 13, 2002. Retrieved April 16, 2013.
  69. ^ “If God Wears a Santa Suit, Will This Be a Tear-Jerker?”. August 5, 2005. Retrieved April 16, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • History of the Boston Marathon, Boston Marathon: The First Century of the World’s Premier Running Event, by Tom Derderian, Human Kinetics Publishers, 1996, 634 pages,ISBN 0-88011-479-7

External links[edit]

General reference[edit]

Photo and video stories[edit]

IAAF World Championships Marathon •World Marathon Cup • Olympic Games Marathon
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